#### Lesson Overview

The students are introduced to the phenomenon of "lift" through a puzzle. They are shown one wing which is square, while the other is aerodynamically shaped to create "lift". They are then asked to guess which model plane wing configuration will lift when thrown. A follow-up section explains the phenomenon, then gives students an exercise that demonstrates the principle of lift.

10-15 minutes

#### NCTM Process Standards

• Standard 1: Mathematics as Problem-Solving
• Standard 2: Mathematics as Communication
• Standard 3: Mathematics as Reasoning
• Standard 4: Mathematical Connections

#### NCTM Content Standards

• Standard 5: Estimation
• Standard 9: Geometry and Spatial Sense
• Standard 13: Patterns and Relationships

#### Aeronautics Content

• Parts of An Airplane
• How Airplanes Fly
• Bernoulli's Principle
• Lift

#### Objectives

• Students will restate or demonstrate Bernoulli's Principle of lift.
• Students will identify the shape of a wing that will lift in the air.
• Students will experience the principle of lift when experimenting with a strip of paper.
• Students will discuss and use the vocabulary terms of the lesson. (see listed below)

None

#### Vocabulary

• air pressure - the force of air spread over a surface; it can be caused by the weight of the atmosphere above or by moving through the atmosphere.
• gravity - a force that pulls everything to the ground.
• lift - the force that pushes an object up, against the natural force of gravity

An appropriate time to discuss vocabulary may be after the lesson when students have experienced the activities.

#### Materials

Pencil, paper, calculator, MathPad (distributed by IntelliTools), strips of paper cut in 2 inch by 8 inch strips

#### Class Organization Guidelines

Collaborative groups help with classroom and student management and assist student learning. Optimally, in computer lab settings 2-4 students at one computer support each other and learn effectively. Large group class combinations of students can be organized with four students to a computer with each student taking a role: Reader, Navigator, Reporter, Captain.

For example, the Reader reads what is on the screen to the group. The Navigator maneuvers the mouse. The Reporter reports back to class. The Captain keeps track of time and monitors group interaction. Three-student and two-student groups can be assigned a combination of these roles. For instance, Reader and Navigator roles can be assigned to one student while the other student can be the Reporter and Captain.

#### Teacher Tips

PlaneMath provides a means to accommodate students with physical and learning disabilities as well as to enhance math learning for all students. Thoughtful planning and management strategies are effective methods to accomplish these goals. Grouping, functional roles, access to well-designed lessons, learning styles along with student interactions are considerations for management of students. For more information for students with disabilities, contact the Alliance for Technology Access http://marin.org/npo/ata/index.html. For additional information go to the main Teacher's Page for PlaneMath.

Here is a simple demonstration of the opposite forces of lift and gravity:

1. Take a non-breakable object (a wadded piece of paper) and hold it steady in front of the class.
2. Let the object go. This demonstrates the force of gravity pulling an object to earth.
3. Pick up the object and hold it steady once again. Why doesn't it fall? Because you are counteracting the force of gravity with your own force. In fact, the force that you are using to hold the object up is equal to the force of gravity trying to pull the object to earth.
4. Now, slightly increase your force and the object rises. This increase in force represents how the force of lift overcomes the force of gravity. If the force of lift is more than the force of gravity, the object rises. If it is less, the object falls to the ground.

#### Online Resources

There are many helpful on-line resources listed in our Aeronautics Links page. Some other sites directly applicable to the Lift Off activity are:

Cislunar's NASA K-8 Aeronautics Internet Textbook - This site offers explanations of lift and other forces of flight at varying levels of reading difficulty.

#### Books

The Sky's the Limit! with Math and Science - AIMS Education Foundation