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#### I. Lesson Overview

The Forces of Flight Department explains and demonstrates the four forces of flight-- lift, drag, thrust and weight--and how these forces interact when a plane flies. Within each force explanation, students interact by answering questions and participating in suggested hands-on activities relating to that force. At the end of the lesson, students participate in two interactive activities. In the first, students learn what a wind tunnel is and how it works. They are then able to place different planes and objects in the wind tunnel and see the accompanying lift and drag values created by the simulated flight. In the second activity, students interpret a bar graph depicting the amount of each force in relation to each other and choose the correct plane movement (going up, going down, level flight, etc.) represented by those forces.

#### II. Hypertext Outline of Lesson

This purpose of this outline is to help you navigate to specific parts of the lesson without having to go through every page. The section titles link to the first pages of that section, and the numbers in parentheses refer to the page number where that section starts.

#### III. Objectives

At the end of this lesson, students will:

• Be able to define each of the four forces of flight and their relationship to one another.
• Understand and be able to describe the relationship between air speed and lift.
• Understand and be able to describe the relationship between air pressure and air speed on a plane's wing (Bernoulli's Principle).
• Understand how lift is created with a kite.
• Understand the concepts of streamlined and aerodynamic.
• Understand how each of the four forces interact with one another by participating in simple experiments.
• Be able to explain what a wind tunnel is and how it is used.
• Read and interpret line and bar graphs.
• Be able to describe a direct relationship and an inverse relationship.

#### IV. Time Allotment

45-70 minutes for entire activity, depending on reading level of students in group.

#### V. NCTM Process Standards

Standard 1: Mathematics as Problem Solving

• Use problem solving approaches to investigate and understand mathematical content.
• Verify and interpret given results and generalize solutions and strategies to a new problem.

Standard 2: Mathematics as Communication

• Interpret and evaluate mathematical ideas presented in written and visual forms.
• Discuss mathematical ideas and make convincing arguments.

Standard 3: Mathematics as Reasoning

• Understand and apply reasoning with graphs.
• Make and evaluate mathematical arguments.

Standard 4: Mathematical Connections

• Explore problems and describe results using graphical, physical and verbal math models.
• Apply mathematics to solve problems in science.
• Recognize the value of math in an applied technical situation

#### VI. NCTM Content Standards

Standard 5: Number and Number Relationships

• Recognize numerical relationships represented in two dimensions graphs.

Standard 8: Patterns and Functions

• Describe and represent relationships with graphs and rules.
• Analyze functional relationships to explain how a change in one quantity results in a change in another.

Standard 9: Algebra

• Represent situations and number patterns with graphs, verbal rules and explore the interrelationships of these representations.
• Analyze graphs to identify relationships.

Standard 10: Statistics

#### VII. Aeronautics Content

• Why Planes Fly
• Four forces of flight: lift, weight, drag, thrust
• Definition and use of a wind tunnel

#### VIII. Prerequisite Skills

• Students should have covered "Lift Off", one of the PlaneMath activities in Applying Flying.
• Students need to understand what a force is--Pressure needed to move an object.
• Students should have some basic knowledge of graphs and tables and how to interpret them.
• Students should have a basic idea of what air pressure and air speed are.

#### IX. Vocabulary

Vocabulary words are linked to the activity pages on which they're defined.

#### X. Materials

• Strip of paper--4" x 11"
• Book
• Hair dryer, electric control unit and switch (if person is unable to blow air)
• 2 pieces of paper, one flat and one crumpled

#### XI. Teacher Tips

This lesson can be completed individually but will move faster and be more fun if two or more people work together. The lesson can be done in under an hour if the students are good readers. There are several good breaking places in this lesson--after either of the four forces descriptions or at the beginning of the ending activities.

Pair up students if someone is unable to hold or manipulate objects. Use a blow drier hooked up to a switch if a student is unable to sustain a blow in the hands-on activity for lift. The crumpled/flat paper hands-on activity for drag can be adapted by assisting the individual to push items off their wheelchair tray or a table. Return to the top of the page